Glossary

a.i.: active ingredient

abdomen: The posterior segment of the bee containing the honey stomach, stomach, intestines, reproductive organs, and stinger.

acaricide: a chemical designed to kill arachnids such as mites

acute exposure: a single exposure to a substance or a short-term exposure, usually lasting less than 24 hours.

ambrosia: see bee bread

amino acid: an organic compound composed of an amine group and a carboxyl group. The amino acids are the “building blocks” of proteins.

anemophilous: pollinated by the wind

anther: a sac-like component of a flower where pollen grains are produced; part of the stamen

apiary: a place where bee hives are kept and managed

bee bread: pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions and stored in the comb for later use as brood food

bee tree: a hollow tree containing one or more colonies of bees

biodiversity: The relative abundance and variety of plant and animal species and ecosystems within a particular habitat

brood: immature bees including the eggs, larvae, and pupae

brood nest: the area in a nest devoted to brood rearing

cell: a compartment in a bee nest used for rearing brood

central nervous system: the part of the nervous system which includes the brain and main ganglia

chorion: the membrane covering a bee egg

chronic exposure: continuous or repeated exposure over a long period of time (greater than 24 hours or much longer)

cocoon: the protective covering around the pupae

coleoptera: an order of insects that includes the beetles, weevils and fireflies

colony: a community of bees composed of one queen and many workers. In the spring and summer it also includes drones.

complete metamorphosis: the four stage development process of an insect that includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult

corbicula: a widened portion of the rear legs of female honey bees covered by curved spines where pollen is stored for transport, also known as pollen baskets pl. corbiculae

cross pollination: fertilization by transfer of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another

cuticle: the waxy outer layer of an insect

dearth: a lack of availability usually referring to nectar or pollen

dioecious: species of plants where the male and female reproductive organs are on separate individuals. Pollen from a male plant must be moved to the pistil of female plant in order to accomplish fertilization.

diploid: having two set of homologous chromosomes

drone: a male haploid bee that develops from an unfertilized egg

endotoxin: a toxin secreted by certain bacteria that is released into the surrounding environment only when it dies

enzyme: a protein with specific characteristics that allow it to aid certain chemical reactions

exine: the outer covering of pollen grains, often containing sporopollenin

exocrine: a gland that secretes externally through a duct

flow: the presence of large amounts of nectar or pollen, usually used in reference to a particular plant species, as in “a good maple flow”

foraging: the collection by bees of water, nectar, pollen, or propolis from their environment

forb: a non-woody (herbaceous) broad-leaved (not a grass, sedge, or rush) flowering plant. The term usually refers to species growing in fields, prairies, or meadows.

fructose: a monosaccharide (simple sugar) frequently found in honey

fungicide: a chemical designed to kill fungus or mold

guttation: The exudation of water from leaves as a result of root pressure.

haploid: having only one set of chromosomes

hemolymph: The circulatory fluid of invertebrate animals that is comparable to blood

herbicide: a chemical designed to kill plants

honeydew: a sweet liquid excreted by aphids, leafhoppers, and some scale insects that is collected by bees, especially in the absence of a good source of nectar.

hydathode: a specialized leaf structure through which water is discharged from the interior of the leaf to its surface

hymenoptera:  an order of insects that includes sawflies, wasps, bees, termites, and ants

IGR: an insecticide that works by disrupting the growth or development of an insect by mimicking natural hormones (insect growth regulator)

insecticide: a chemical designed to kill insects

instar: a stage of larval development between two molts; the first instar occurs after the first molt

larvae: an immature, grub-like bee intermediate between egg and pupal stages

lepidoptera: an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies

lumen: the interior space of a tubular structure

mandibles: the jaws of an insect

metabolite: a substance that is the product of biological changes to another chemical, such as those from pesticides

miticide: see acaricide

monoculture: the agricultural practice of  growing one single crop over a wide area

monolectic: a pollinator that visits only one species of plan

nectar: a sweet solution secreted by the glands of plants

nematicide: a chemical designed to kill roundworms

neonicotinoid: a class of insecticides which act on the central nervous system of insects and are chemically similar to nicotine

oligolectic: a pollinator that visits only a small number of plant species

panicle: a type of inflorescence with a pyramidal, loosely branched flower cluster

parthenogenesis: development from unfertilized eggs. In bees the drones (males) result from parthenogenesis

pesticides: a chemical designed to kill a pest

phenology: the study of periodic plant and animal life cycles and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate

pheromone: a chemical substance released by an animal to induce a response in another animal of the same species

pistil: the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of stigma, style, and ovary

pollen: a powder-like substance produced by the anthers of flowering plants and containing the male gametes

pollen basket: see corbicula

pollenkitt: a sticky substance adhering to the outside surface (exine) of a pollen grain, which aids bees in the collection of pollen

pollination: the movement of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of a compatible flower

pollinator: an agent that transfers pollen from one flower to another

polyfloral: made from many different flower types, as polyfloral pollen

polylectic: pollinators that visit many different plant species

prepupa: a stage between the last larval instar and the true pupal stage

proboscis: the “tongue” of a bee used to suck nectar and water

propolis: plant resins that are collected by bees and used to seal cracks and soften rough edges in the hive. Also called “bee glue” propolis is high in antimicrobial substances

protein: an organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain in an order specified by a gene’s DNA sequence

pupa: the stage of development immediately preceding the adult stage. A pupa is sealed under a wax capping where it spins a cocoon and completes development

queen: a fully developed female bee. Normally, there is just one queen per nest.

spermatheca: an organ in the queen abdomen in which sperm is stored

stamen: the male (pollen-bearing) part of the flower consisting of the anther and the filament

sublethal dose/concentration: a dose or concentration that induces no statistically significant mortality in the experimental population

sublethal effect: a physiological or behavioral change found in individuals that survive an exposure to a pesticide

synergistic: co-operative, working together, interacting, mutually stimulating. Synergistic toxicity occurs when two pesticides acting together are more toxic that either one acting separately.

systemic pesticide: a pesticide that is absorbed and circulated by a plant or animal so that the plant or animal is toxic to pests that feed on it.

thorax: the middle segment of a bee body that supports the wings and legs

trachea: a breathing apparatus consisting of branching tubes that conduct oxygen to the inner tissues of the bee

transgenic: an organism that has had genes from another organism inserted into its chromosomes

trophallaxis: direct food transfer between bees

Varroa mites (Varroa destructor): parasites that feed on the hemolymph of bees and reproduce on the pupae

worker: an infertile, diploid female bee adapted to perform a variety of functions depending on her age

xenobiotic: chemical substances that are foreign to a biological system